Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a reproductive technology used during an IVF cycle. PGD can be used for diagnosis of a genetic disease in early embryos before implantation or pregnancy. Each cell in our body has 46 chromosomes (23 from the father and 23 from the mother). The chromosomes are made up of a substance called DNA that contains our genetic information. Information is distributed in the genes and there are two copies of each gene, one originating from the mother and the other from the father.
During pregnancy, there are two types of diagnosis to establish chromosomal and genetic alterations in the foetus:
Vitrification delivers the same clinical results as with fresh eggs with a high survival rate of the oocytes.
Vitrification of oocytes is the most viable option for women who have to undergo chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, it must be performed with the oncologists' consent.
Delaying motherhood has become a trend owing to the socio-economic reasons and change in lifestyle. Egg cryopreservation provides the opportunity for these women to preserve their eggs until they are ready to be mothers or once they have attained professional and financial stability. Egg cryopreservation enables the creation of donor egg banks. It also provides an alternative in cases where the man finds it impossible to give his semen sample on the day of the ovarian puncture, or when it is necessary to delay the time of embryo transfer. For example, in cases where there is a risk of ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome...
The surface cells that surround the cavity (just under the outer shell) later develop into the placenta and the more centrally located group of cells are called the inner cell mass, that develop into the foetus.
In a conventional IVF, the embryos are transferred to the uterus after 48 hours between the fourth and eight cell stages. In a natural conception, the embryo reaches the uterine cavity only on the fifth day. With the availability of an extended culture medium, we can culture the embryos in the laboratory till the blastocyst stage (i.e. fifth or sixth day). This procedure is called as blastocyst culture. With the blastocyst embryo transfer, we can transfer the embryos of a smaller number, while keeping the overall pregnancy rates high. This reduces the risk of multiple pregnancies.
Testicular biopsy involves examining the testes for sperm production. This is done for both, diagnosis as well as therapy. Diagnostic biopsy is done for men with azoospermia (no sperm in the semen) to know whether sperm is being produced or whether there is a failure of sperm production. Based on the results, further treatment is planned.
A therapeutic testicular biopsy is for men with azoospermia, to recover sperm from the testes. The sperm is then used for ICSI (test- tube baby).Testicular biopsy can be performed under general or local anesthesia. Previously, all biopsies were open surgery but now most of the biopsies can be done with a needle technique which is as effective as an open biopsy, but is associated with no pain or discomfort since there are no cuts or stitches on the testes.
If the testes are very small then open microdissection TESE is required in which the testes is opened and examined under a microscope for biopsy.
NFC offer all techniques of testicular biopsy – percutaneous (needle biopsy) and open microsurgical – based on the patient's needs.
Semen donation is a voluntary act through which a healthy male with a healthy quality of semen donates his gametes to be used by an authorized reproduction center for the purpose of achieving pregnancies in women. The donor is economically compensated for this activity. Management, control and supervision of this activity are carried out in the reproduction clinics that provide semen banks in their services offered.
Donors are healthy volunteers of legal age, who undergo various check-ups to demonstrate a perfect state of health and sperm quality.